Iron oxide is responsible for the planet's reddish hue. Quite simply: rust, which makes up the bulk of the dust. It covers Mars with a layer from several millimeters to two meters (Tarsis Highlands). Iron oxide is lifted into the atmosphere with the help of winds creating ascending air currents. He can be seen from space. In fact, the surface of Mars has a full spectrum of colors: yellow, brown, golden, brown, red, green. It all depends on the chemical composition of the soil. Spectral analysis carried out by the equipment installed on the Mars Express interplanetary space station gave an exhaustive answer to the riddle that haunted the best minds of mankind for thousands of years.
The small size of Mars, a thin layer of the atmosphere, very weak pressure, together lead to the constant appearance of winds. The planet is continuously blown through by powerful currents flying at a speed reaching - 100 m / s. They reach their maximum in early summer, due to the huge temperature difference between the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Huge streams of dust, weakly contained by gravity, are drawn into the process of the occurrence of Martian storms. The power of the air vortices whirling on the surface of the astronomical neighbor exceeds all known limits. When viewed from space, only yellow clouds are visible, enveloping the entire planet. The lifespan of dust storms varies from 50 to 100 days. Sometimes, during the passage of perihelion (the point of the orbit closest to the Sun), the phenomenon takes on a global character. This happens much more often than expected. Once every 1.88 Earth year.